The Penates or Di Penates were the protectors of the pantry, the penus, in each family. At each meal a part of it would be thrown into the hearth to the Penates.

The cult was closely related to the Lares and the goddess Vesta, and the centre of the cult was in the Temple of Vesta in the Forum Romanum.

The Penates Publici were to the Roman State what the penates were to each family.

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