Campania is a region in southern Italy on the Tyrrhenian Sea, centred around the city of Naples.

The region was originally inhabited by Italic tribes, who were later joined by Greek, Etruscan and Samnite invaders in the 9th-5th centuries BCE. The Greek founded Naples and Paestum, among others, and the Etruscans founded Capua further north. From the 5th to the 3rd centuries BCE the region fell under Roman control and became a central part of the empire.

After the demise of the Roman Empire in the west, the region was first taken by the Longobards in the 6th century CE, and later by the Byzantine general Belisarius. In the 11th century the Normans invaded the region and formed a kingdom that would unite Southern Italy until the Italian unification in 1860. This kingdom was lead by various European royal families, such as the Spanish House of Aragona, and the French Houses of Anjou and Bourbon, except for a short period under the Napoleonic Wars, when first a republic and later a puppet kingdom were formed under a brother of Napoleon.

With the unification of Italy, Naples lost is status as capital and seat of the royal court, a role it had held for almost 800 years.

Site highlights

Documents contained within "Campania":

  • Benevento - Ancient Roman city famous of the Arch of Trajan
  • Caserta - Home of the "Reggia", the royal palace of the Bourbons
  • Herculaneum - Ruins of a Roman seaside city buried by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CD
  • Naples - The capital of the region for almost 3000 years
  • Paestum - Ancient greek city with three Doric temples
  • Pompeii - Ruins of a Roman city buried by the Vesuvius in 79 CE
  • Vesuvius - The vulcano near Naples that buried Pompeii in 79 CE

Copyright © 2003 René Seindal, last changed 2003-08-06

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